How are calorie requirements determined?
These are determined by the costs of the organization, which are of different types: the simple maintenance of life in our body or energy expenditure rests, representing 70 to 75% of all these costs. Their importance varies from person to person and depends essentially on muscle and visceral mass. Finally, rest costs are distributed regularly for 24 hours.
Physical activity, which varies from person to person, accounts for only 15 to 20% of total energy expenditure, for a living room that does not exercise more than two hours a week.
The costs required to fight the common cold, that is, to regulate body temperature, are negligible in our climates and in a heated environment.
The last 10% is related to heat production that occurs after meals, during digestion (we are often hot after meals, according to a phenomenon called postnatal thermogenesis). This heat is produced by food processing.
Finally, certain conditions cause increased costs: growth, pregnancy, lactation, illness or wound healing. This should be taken into account when trying to identify one’s needs.
Calculate your metabolism
The metabolism is calculated according to the following formula:
Male: 66.5 + (13.8 x m) + (5 x h) – (6.8 x a)
Woman: 655.1 + (9.6 x m) + (1.9 x h) – (4.7 x a)
where m is the weight in kg, h is the height in centimeters, e is the age. The result is expressed in kcal.
According to this formula, a 40-year-old man weighing 75 kg and 180 cm tall has a basic metabolism of 1,521 kcal / day. A 40-year-old woman weighing 60 kg and 165 cm tall has a basic metabolism of 1,351 kcal / d. In case of pregnancy, its basic metabolism will increase by 110 kcal (which does not justify excessive nutritional differences …)
Therefore, we need 1,300 to 1,500 kcal per day to cover our basic expenses, with a small increase during pregnancy or during development. What will be consumed and spent in addition covers the energy costs that depend on professional and athletic activity. A seating person (office work) has energy needs ranging from 2,500 kcal (male) to 2,000 kcal (female) and needs increase rapidly depending on activity level to reach 3,000 or 4,000 kcal per day or more for heavy-duty sports. or high strength. For example, the dietary requirements of Olympic swimming champion Michael Phelps at the Beijing Olympics were estimated at 12,000 kcal / day. In contrast, the energy requirements of basal metabolism and activity levels gradually decrease with age, which justifies reducing the size of meals.
Food is therefore a constant balance between the intake and expenditure of the body, which is regulated by the feeling of hunger. This balance is affected by many indirect factors, such as psychology (stress causes bulimia or suppresses appetite), social factors (festive meals) and habits.
If the food intake, and therefore the number calories, it is very high, the body defends itself. It stores this extra energy in the form of fat, and therefore from progressive obesity, a fortiori if physical activity does not correspond to the level of caloric intake. Conversely, reducing ingestion, by restricting food or by mechanical means such as reducing the size of the stomach with bariatric surgery, always results in a reduction in calorie intake and therefore in weight loss.
Calorie expenditure of 70 kg per person depending on the activity (per hour)
|Wash the dishes||60 kcal / hour|
|Sleep||60 kcal / hour|
|Speaking on the phone||85 kcal / hour|
|Video game||108 kcal / hour|
|To study||120 kcal / hour|
|Stay upright||130 kcal / hour|
|Golf||180 kcal / hour|
|Bike||180 to 300 kcal / h|
|Dance dance||210 kcal / hour|
|Slow walking||240 kcal / hour|
|Shopping supermarket||240 kcal / hour|
|Cleaning||300 kcal / hour|
|Aerobic exercise||360 kcal / hour|
|Hydromnastic||360 kcal / hour|
|Tennis||480 kcal / hour|
|Fast walking||520 kcal / hour|
|Football||540 kcal / hour|
|Handball||600 kcal / hour|
|Is running||600 kcal / hour|
|Basketball||600 kcal / hour|
|Fast dance||605 kcal / hour|
|Boxing||660 kcal / hour|
|Judo||720 kcal / hour|
|Climb the stairs||1000 kcal / hour|
These caloric expenditures are approximate because they can be increased by the body’s spirit, heat, food, etc. On average, the power consumption at rest is 60 kcal / h, in a sitting position (office work) 90 kcal / h, in an upright position 120 kcal / h. Then the energy expenditure increases up to 1000 kcal / h for intense sports or professional activities.
Recommended energy intake (ANC) depending on age
|sex||age (years)||Weight (kg)||ANC (kcal)|
|61-75||36 kcal / kg|
|61-75||36 kcal / kg|